Sheriffs, Bailiffs, Town Marshals, Civil Constables and Process Services Bureaus in U.S.
In the United States a sheriff is generally (but not always) the highest, usually elected, law enforcement officer of a county and commander of militia in that county. The political election of a person to serve as a police leader is an almost uniquely American tradition. (The practice has been followed in the British Channel Island of Jersey since at least the 16th century.) All law enforcement officers working for the agency headed by a sheriff are called sheriff's deputies or deputy sheriffs and are so called because they are deputized by the sheriff to perform the same duties as he. (In some states, however, a Sheriff may not be a sworn officer but merely an elected official in charge of sworn officers.) These officers may be subdivided into general deputies and special deputies. In some places, the sheriff has the responsibility to recover any deceased persons within their county. That is why often the full title is Deputy Sheriff-Coroner, Deputy Sheriff Coroner or Deputy Sheriff/Coroner, and the sheriff's title is Sheriff Coroner or Sheriff/Coroner. The second-in-command of the department is sometimes called an Undersheriff or "Chief Deputy". This is akin to the deputy chief of police position of a police department. In some counties, the Undersheriff is the Warden of the county Jail or other local Correctional institution.

In the U.S., the relationship between the sheriff and other police departments varies widely from state to state, and indeed in some states from county to county. In the northeastern U.S., the sheriff's duties have been greatly reduced with the advent of state-level law enforcement agencies, especially the state police and local agencies such as the county police.

Sheriff offices may coexist with other county level law enforcement agencies such as the County Police, County Park Police, County Detectives, etc.

Within the U.S. most of the Bailiffs work relates to courtroom security and post-arrest prisoner transfer. 

The Civil Constables are a full time "Legal Process Officers" specializing in investigations, executing civil judgments, general process services, or process services relating to Child Support obligations, etc. 


Sheriffs, Bailiffs, Provincial Civil Constables and Process Service  Bureaus in Canada, and British Commonwealth
   Various jurisdictions in Canada on provincial and sub-provincial levels operate sheriff's departments primarily concerned with court bailiff services such as courtroom security, post-arrest prisoner transfer, serving legal processes, and executing civil judgments. Sheriffs are defined under Section 2 of the Criminal Code of Canada as "peace officers" and in many cases have the same authority as a police officer. In other parts of Canada not covered by a sheriff's agency, bailiff functions are handled directly by the local, provincial police or Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) as appropriate.

In 2006 in the province of Alberta, the sheriff duties were expanded to include highway patrols in the province to free up RCMP officers for other police duties. In November 2007 the Alberta Sheriffs' introduced a Warrant Apprehension Unit to clean up the some 200,000 warrants in Alberta.

Provincial Bailiffs and Provincial Civil Constables serve legal orders and documents, seize or repossess properties, evict tenants and perform other related activities. Sheriffs and bailiffs are employed by provincial or territorial courts, and Bailiffs and Civil Constables may be employed as officers of the court or in private service as agents for creditors.

International Process Service,  International Bailiff Service, Bail and  Fugitive Recovery Enforcement
   International Process Service Agent, or a Bailiff may be an employee, or an officers of the State, Federal, or Provincial courts, or in private service agent retained to execute a Court Order in a jurisdictions outside of United States, or outside of the British Commonwealth. International Process Service Agents and Bailiffs work in conjunction with local national authorities, or under special judiciary appointment, or the Court Order, including execution of an arrest warrant of a fugitives. Those Agents specializing in execution of arrest warrants of a fugitives are usually referred to as Bail Enforcement, or Fugitive Recovery Agents.